What causes recurrent pregnancy loss?

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), also referred to as recurrent miscarriage or habitual abortion, is historically defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses prior to 20 weeks from the last menstrual period.

Does male contribution to recurrent pregnancy loss ?

The male contribution to RPL remains understudied. Chromosomal abnormalities are well defined causes of pregnancy losses in the literature.  However abnormal DNA fragmentation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of unexplained RPL, it is routinely checked during the evaluation of RPL.

Does Structural chromosomal abnormalities cause recurrent pregnancy loss ?
In this a part of one chromosome may be found attached to a different chromosome so that all the genetic material is present but not in the right place. This is referred to as a translocation. In this situation, it is possible to create unbalanced gametes, which often result in offspring that spontaneously abort.
Balanced translocations consist of reciprocal or Robertsonian translocations or inversions. Translocations can occur de novo in an embryo or can be inherited from either parent. If the translocation is inherited, the carrier parent is often phenotypically normal.What is sperm DNA fragmentation?
 
 
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DNA fragmentation is the separation or breakage of DNA strands into pieces. Not only does the presence of significant sperm DNA fragmentation have profound implications on embryogenesis, prenatal and postnatal growth, it has also been proposed to be associated with congenital malformations and childhood cancers.

Fertilization of an oocyte with damaged spermatozoon may result in an increase in DNA damage in the resulting embryo genome, which could result in DNA errors at different levels of embryogenesis.

What is Y chromosome microdeletion (YCM)?

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Y chromosome microdeletion (YCM) is a family of genetic disorders caused by missing gene(s) in the Y chromosome. Many men with YCM exhibit no symptoms and lead normal lives. However, YCM is also known to be present in a significant number of men with reduced fertility. Loss of this genetic material likely prevents the production of one or more proteins needed for normal sperm cell development.

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